Safe or Hazard: Fracking Provides 66% of U.S. Gas
Monday, May 9, 2016 @ 05:05 PM gHale
Safety hazard, environmental disaster, safe and sound procedure, whatever the perspective behind fracking, one thing is for sure, 66 percent of the United States’ natural gas comes from the completion technique.
Based on the most recent data from states, Energy Information Administration (EIA) said natural gas production from hydraulically fractured wells now makes up about two-thirds of U.S. marketed gas production.
This share of production is even greater than the share of crude oil produced using that method, where hydraulic fracturing accounts for about half of current U.S. crude oil production.
Hydraulic fracturing, often in combination with horizontal drilling, involves forcing a liquid (primarily water) under high pressure from a wellbore against a rock formation until it fractures. The fracture lengthens as the high-pressure liquid in the wellbore flows into the formation. This injected liquid contains a proppant, or small, solid particles (usually sand or a manmade granular solid of similar size), that fills the expanding fracture. When the injection stops and the pressure reduced, the formation attempts to settle back into its original configuration, but the proppant keeps the fractures open. This allows hydrocarbons to flow from the rock formation back to the wellbore and then to the surface.
EIA created a profile of marketed natural gas production using well completion and production data from IHS Global Insight and DrillingInfo Inc. that shows a dramatic increase in production associated with hydraulic fracking.
In 2000, 26,000 hydraulically fractured wells produced 3.6 billion cubic per day (Bcf/d) of marketed gas in the United States, making up less than 7 percent of the national total. By 2015, the number of hydraulically fractured wells had grown to 300,000, and production from those wells had grown to more than 53 Bcf/d, making up about 67 percent of the total natural gas output of the United States.
EIA measures natural gas production in three ways. Gross withdrawals are the full volume of compounds extracted at the wellhead, which includes all natural gas liquids and nonhydrocarbon gases after the oil, lease condensate, and water have been removed. Marketed natural gas production excludes natural gas used for repressuring the well, vented and flared gas, and any nonhydrocarbon gases.
Marketed gas can end up further processed into dry natural gas, also known as consumer-grade natural gas. This process involves not only extracting valuable hydrocarbon gas liquids such as ethane and propane, but also removing impurities such as water vapor and noncombustible gases that would interfere with pipeline operations or end-use applications.
Natural gas production from hydraulic fracturing has primarily come from shale and other tight rocks in the Marcellus and Utica formations of the Appalachian Basin, the Bakken formation in Montana and North Dakota, the Eagle Ford formation in Texas, and the stacked Permian Basin formations in Texas and New Mexico.