Posts Tagged ‘Department of Defense’
Wednesday, May 14, 2014 @ 05:05 PM gHale
There is a new tool in development that helps anyone determine whether a Twitter account is under the operation of a human or an automated software application known as a social bot.
BotOrNot analyzes over 1,000 features from a user’s friendship network, their Twitter content and temporal information, all in real time.
It then calculates the likelihood that the account may or may not be a bot.
The new analysis tool stems from research at the Indiana University Bloomington School of Informatics and Computing funded by the U.S. Department of Defense to counter technology-based misinformation and deception campaigns.
The National Science Foundation and the U.S. military are funding the research after recognizing that increased information flow — blogs, social networking sites, media-sharing technology — along with an accelerated proliferation of mobile technology is changing the way communication and possibly misinformation campaigns end up conducted.
As network science ends up applied to the task of uncovering deception, it leverages the structure of social and information diffusion networks, along with linguistic cues, temporal patterns and sentiment data mined from content spreading through social media. Each of these feature classes ends up analyzed with BotOrNot.
“We have applied a statistical learning framework to analyze Twitter data, but the ‘secret sauce’ is in the set of more than one thousand predictive features able to discriminate between human users and social bots, based on content and timing of their tweets, and the structure of their networks,” said Alessandro Flammini, an associate professor of informatics and principal investigator on the project. “The demo that we’ve made available illustrates some of these features and how they contribute to the overall ‘bot or not’ score of a Twitter account.”
Through use of these features and examples of Twitter bots provided by Texas A&M University professor James Caverlee’s infolab, the researchers are able to train statistical models to discriminate between social bots and humans. Flammini said the system is quite accurate. Using an evaluation measure called AUROC, BotOrNot is scoring 0.95 with 1.0 being perfect accuracy.
“Part of the motivation of our research is that we don’t really know how bad the problem is in quantitative terms,” said Fil Menczer, the informatics and computer science professor who directs IU’s Center for Complex Networks and Systems Research, where the new work is ongoing as part of the information diffusion research project called Truthy.
“Are there thousands of social bots? Millions? We know there are lots of bots out there, and many are totally benign,” Menczer said. “But we also found examples of nasty bots used to mislead, exploit and manipulate discourse with rumors, spam, malware, misinformation, political astroturf and slander.”
Flammini and Menczer believe these kinds of social bots could be dangerous for democracy, cause panic during an emergency, affect the stock market, facilitate cybercrime and hinder advancement of public policy. The goal is to support human efforts to counter misinformation with truthful information.
Friday, April 4, 2014 @ 04:04 PM gHale
Outside cyber attacks gain the most publicity, but internal incidents are just as worrisome, just ask the Defense Department (DoD).
What concerns DoD officials the most is careless or poorly trained insiders as a source of threats, one survey found, according to a survey by SolarWinds, an IT management software provider.
In the survey, which addressed cyber security threats and preparedness across the federal government, 41 percent of DoD respondents named insider data leakage/theft as a threat, not far below the 48 percent who identified external hacking.
And although those responses may have come with the disclosures of Edward Snowden and Chelsea Manning in mind, it seems inept co-workers, rather than intentional leakers, are the biggest concern.
Fifty-three percent of DoD respondents cited careless/untrained insiders as a source of security threats, more than foreign governments (48 percent), terrorists (31 percent) or the general hacking community (35 percent). Malicious insiders were at 26 percent of respondents.
SolarWinds conducted the online survey earlier this year of 200 IT and IT security professionals in the federal government, 40 percent of whom worked in the military. The results showed similarities in the concerns of civilian and military agencies, as well as some notable differences.
Overall, the respondents were pretty confident in their IT defenses, with 94 percent rating their cyber security readiness as good or excellent (though more good, at 50 percent, than excellent, at 44 percent).
External hacking was the most common threat in the overall survey, with 50 percent of the respondents naming it, followed by malware (46 percent), social engineering (37 percent) and spam (36 percent), with similar results coming from civilian and Defense agencies.
Differences cropped up in a few areas, though. Only 21 percent of civilian respondents cited insider data leakage/theft as a threat, compared with DoD’s 41 percent. And twice as many civilian respondents (25 percent to 12 percent) named mobile device theft as a threat, perhaps reflecting the fact that DoD has to date eschewed the bring your own device trend. DoD respondents showed more concerned than their civilian counterparts about physical security attacks, 25 percent to 13 percent.
Click here to review the survey.
Wednesday, October 2, 2013 @ 10:10 AM gHale
Seventeen Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) graduate students earned cyber security scholarships from the National Science Foundation, the Department of Homeland Security’s CyberCorps Scholarship for Service (SFS) Program and the Department of Defense’s Information Assurance Scholarship Program (IASP).
The SFS awards went to nine students in CMU’s Information Networking Institute (INI) and six students at CMU’s Heinz College. The IASP awards went to two INI students.
Both programs share a common goal and that is to increase and strengthen the amount of federal information assurance professionals that protect the nation’s critical infrastructures and national defense.
“As future federal employees, the SFS and IASP scholars delve into challenging engineering and information assurance coursework and engage in interdisciplinary cyber security research. In addition to the emphasis on the technologies and strategies related to cyber defense and cyber offense, CMU’s cyber security curricula explore risk management, economics and policy issues related to reducing vulnerability and securing our national information infrastructure,” said Dena Haritos Tsamitis, INI director and director of education, training and outreach for CyLab. She is also the principal investigator of the grants.
Increased global cyber attacks make the training and retention of cyber security experts a priority of the U.S. government. The National Security Agency (NSA) and the United States Cyber Command designated Carnegie Mellon as a National Center of Academic Excellence (CAE) in cyber operations for 2013-2018. The National Security Agency designated the university as a CAE in Information Assurance Education and a CAE in research.
More than 160 students in the SFS program have graduated from CMU in the past decade. One student in the IASP graduated from the INI in 2012.
Both programs provide full-tuition scholarships and stipends to scholars in exchange for working for the federal government after graduation.
Monday, April 29, 2013 @ 04:04 PM gHale
A policy through which federal departments offered prosecutorial immunity to companies that helped the U.S. military monitor Internet traffic on private networks of defense contractors expanded by Executive Order to include other critical infrastructure industries, according to the Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC).
EPIC said the pilot-version of the program run with the Departments of Justice (DoJ), Defense (DoD), and Homeland Security (DHS) came to light in June 2011 after The Washington Post published a report detailing the implementation of a new program by National Security Administration that let them monitor traffic flowing from some defense contractors through certain Internet service providers. At the time, The Washington Post quoted Deputy Defense Secretary William J. Lynn III saying the program was to help thwart attacks against defense firms and the government hoped to expand the program moving forward.
The documents obtained in the a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request, EPIC said, reveal the DoD advised private industry organizations on the ways in which they circumvent federal wiretap laws in order to aid the DoD and DHS in their surveillance of private Internet networks belonging to defense contractors.
EPIC, digital rights group the Electronic Frontier Foundation, and others fear the program’s expansion would apply to the broad swath of organizations that potentially fall under the vague category of critical infrastructure.
The government has not yet named the program, but EPIC said the NSA has partnered with AT&T, Verizon, and CenturyLink in order to keep tabs on the Internet traffic flowing into and out of some 15 defense contractors, including Lockheed Martin, CSC, SAIC, and Northrop Grumman.
For its part, the NSA said it is not directly monitoring these networks, but is rather filtering their traffic in order to detect the presence of suspicious packets based on a number of malicious code signatures the agency has developed.
EPIC issued a FOIA request in July 2011 requesting the following information: “All contracts and communications with Lockheed Martin, CSC, SAIC, Northrop Grumman, or any other defense contractors regarding the new NSA pilot program; All contracts and communications with AT&T, Verizon, and CenturyLink or any other ISPs regarding the new NSA pilot program; All analyses, legal memoranda, and related records regarding the new NSA pilot program; Any memoranda of understanding between NSA and DHS or any other government agencies or corporations regarding the new NSA pilot program; Any Privacy Impact Assessment performed as part of the development of the new NSA pilot program.”
The government failed to provide any of this information. So, EPIC filed a FOIA lawsuit on March 1, 2012 and eventually gained access to thousands of pages of previously unreleased documents, which they have posted on their website.
Wednesday, January 30, 2013 @ 05:01 PM gHale
Cyber threats are real and abundant and the government is keenly aware it needs to lock in security policies and procedures.
Just look at what is going on. The Senate keeps pushing for legislation to improve information-sharing on threats and attacks. President Barack Obama is looking to issue an executive order on cyber security and the Department of Defense (DoD) is looking for a massive increase in the number of trained cyber security professionals to defend the country’s private and public networks.
Security professionals working on these assignments right now is difficult to narrow down as quite a few work in agencies that don’t discuss their operations. Also, some work in dual-tasked positions and don’t focus on just one assignment. However, officials from the Department of Defense have been pushing for more funding to hire more trained security professionals.
Now, that push seems to be paying dividends. The Pentagon’s goal is to increase the number of security professionals from fewer than 1,000 to 5,000 in the next few years. Those personnel will comprise military and civilian security professionals, and the goal will be to defend the country’s critical infrastructure as well as government and military networks.
This all comes just a few days after Janet Napolitano, secretary of the Department of Homeland Security, warned a nation-level incident of the scale of 9/11 could occur sometime soon as a result of a cyber attack. Napolitano is not the first to warn about the possibility of such an attack, but is rather the latest in a long line of government officials, presidential advisers and security experts to raise that specter. Security researchers also have warned in recent years about serious vulnerabilities in the SCADA and ICS systems that run much of the network infrastructure in utilities, financial systems and other critical areas.
In October, DHS officials warned SCADA system operators about an increase in the level of malicious activity targeting those systems.
“Asset owners should not assume that their control systems are secure or that they are not operating with an Internet accessible configuration. Instead, asset owners should thoroughly audit their networks for Internet facing devices, weak authentication methods, and component vulnerabilities,” the alert said.
The new plan from the Pentagon contemplates the creation of several separate groups of cyber security personnel, each with a different set of responsibilities. One group will defend networks used by critical infrastructure entities like utilities. Another team will be responsible for defensive and offensive military operations in cyberspace, and the third group will work on fortifying the DoD’s networks.
All of the groups will report up to the U.S. Cyber Command, a relatively new arm of the military headed by Gen. Keith Alexander, the director of the National Security Agency.
Monday, September 17, 2012 @ 04:09 PM gHale
U.S. power grids and other civilian infrastructure are not prepared for electromagnetic pulses (EMP) that could result from weapons or violent space weather, according to a congressional subcommittee hearing last week.
There are serious flaws in the nation’s infrastructure that could allow for EMP events to shut down power and communications for extended periods of time, said panelists at the House Homeland Security Subcommittee on Cybersecurity, Infrastructure Protection and Security Technologies, headed by Chairman Dan Lungren R-CA.
“Our civilian grid, which the Defense Department relies upon for 99 percent of its electricity needs, is vulnerable to these kinds of dangers,” Rep. Trent Franks, R-AZ, testified during the hearing. Franks, one of the leaders of the Congressional EMP Caucus, sponsored legislation in 2011 to protect U.S. infrastructure in the event of an attack by an EMP weapon.
Michael Aimone, a director of business enterprise integration at Defense, said the Pentagon had pursued a “two-track approach” to mitigate the impact an EMP attack could have on Defense facilities. He said his plan relied on in-house capabilities to maintain power and electronics and a means to communicate and coordinate with outside partners.
“DoD recently adopted an explicit mission assurance strategy, which is focused on ensuring operational continuity in an all-hazard threat environment,” Aimone said.
EMP disruptions and attacks can come from different types of events, including high-altitude or low-altitude nuclear weapons detonations, locally based radio frequency weapons, and solar weather. One of the largest impacts from an EMP-based disruption was in Quebec in 1989, when nearly 6 million people lost power because of a geomagnetic storm.
Brandon Wales, of the Homeland Security Department’s National Protection and Programs Directorate, said DHS was working with federal agencies on contingency plans for an EMP event. He said Federal Emergency Management Agency was establishing lines of communication with key agencies in case an EMP event occurs, and that Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano had commissioned a report in 2011 to study the impact of space-based EMP attacks.
“DHS has pursued a deeper understanding of the EMP threat, as well as its potential impacts, effective mitigation strategies, and a greater level of public awareness and readiness in cooperation with other federal agencies and private equipment and system owners and operators through various communications channels,” Wales said.
Common standards for power grid equipment are a major issue, said Joseph McClelland, director of the Office of Electric Reliability at the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. He said current standards to protect infrastructure and equipment do not address the many levels within the power grid and should undergo an update.
“Protecting the electric generation, transmission and distribution systems from severe damage due to an EMP-related event would involve vulnerability assessments at every level of electric infrastructure,” McClelland said.
Tuesday, May 15, 2012 @ 07:05 PM gHale
Cyber security is the top issue keeping federal agency CIOs up at night, followed by controlling costs and managing human capital, according a new survey.
Forty CIOs and other federal IT leaders, from agencies including the Department of Defense, Homeland Security, and Veterans Affairs ended up interviewed by TechAmerica, a tech industry group. Twenty percent identified cyber security as their top concern, followed by 15% who pointed to controlling costs, and 12% human capital.
While most of security resources direct toward outside threats, internal threats are a growing concern, respondents said. At the same time, TechAmerica said outside threats are on the rise and becoming more sophisticated.
One CIO said IT security is inconsistent in federal government and quality is “all over the place.” A consequence of such concerns is agencies are unwilling to embrace federal IT goals for centralization and mobility, according to the report. There would be less concern if there was a consistent, high-quality security framework applied across government.
Survey respondents recommended agencies identify which department “owns” security; that they plan ahead and build infrastructure with security in mind; and the government develop sound metrics for security monitoring.
Cost control was the second most-mentioned concern of federal CIOs, a reflection of flat IT budgets over the past three years. Some said budget discipline drove changes such as dropping unused software licenses and adopting thin-client hardware. However, across-the-board budget cuts were the “most feasible and least effective way” to control costs.