Reusable Sponge Can Soak Up Oil

Friday, March 10, 2017 @ 12:03 PM gHale

Argonne postdoctoral researcher Ed Barry wrings out a sheet of Oleo Sponge during tests at Argonne.
Mark Lopez/Argonne National Laboratory

When the Deepwater Horizon disaster struck almost seven years ago in the Gulf of Mexico, beginning the worst oil spill in U.S. history, those in charge of the recovery discovered a new wrinkle: Millions of gallons of oil bubbling from the sea floor weren’t all collecting on the surface where workers could skim or burn it.

Rather, some of it was forming a plume and drifting through the ocean under the surface.

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There is now a new foam, called Oleo Sponge, that can address this underwater drift. The material not only easily absorbs oil from water, but is also reusable and can pull dispersed oil from the entire water column — not just the surface, said scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DoE) Argonne National Laboratory.

“The Oleo Sponge offers a set of possibilities that, as far as we know, are unprecedented,” said co-inventor Seth Darling, a scientist with Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials and a fellow of the University of Chicago’s Institute for Molecular Engineering.

We already have a library of molecules that can grab oil, but the problem is how to get them into a useful structure and bind them there permanently.

The scientists started out with common polyurethane foam, used in everything from furniture cushions to home insulation. This foam has lots of nooks and crannies which could provide ample surface area to grab oil; but they needed to give the foam a new surface chemistry in order to firmly attach the oil-loving molecules.

Previously, Darling and fellow Argonne chemist Jeff Elam developed a technique called sequential infiltration synthesis, or SIS, which can infuse hard metal oxide atoms within complicated nanostructures.

After some trial and error, they found a way to adapt the technique to grow an extremely thin layer of metal oxide “primer” near the foam’s interior surfaces. This serves as the glue for attaching the oil-loving molecules, which end up deposited in a second step; they hold onto the metal oxide layer with one end and reach out to grab oil molecules with the other.

The result is Oleo Sponge, a block of foam that easily adsorbs oil from the water. The material, which looks a bit like an outdoor seat cushion, can end up wrung out and reused — and the oil itself recovered.

At tests at a giant seawater tank in New Jersey called Ohmsett, the National Oil Spill Response Research & Renewable Energy Test Facility, the Oleo Sponge successfully collected diesel and crude oil from below and on the water surface.

“The material is extremely sturdy. We’ve run dozens to hundreds of tests, wringing it out each time, and we have yet to see it break down at all,” Darling said.

Oleo Sponge could potentially end up used routinely to clean harbors and ports, where diesel and oil tend to accumulate from ship traffic, said John Harvey, a business development executive with Argonne’s Technology Development and Commercialization division.

Elam, Darling and the rest of the team are continuing to develop the technology.

“The technique offers enormous flexibility, and can be adapted to other types of cleanup besides oil in seawater,” Elam said. “You could attach a different molecule to grab any specific substance you need.”

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